Other studies of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome have shown similar community compositions, although these studies were performed using different strategies, mainly based on culturing or on the use of other primers in PCR e. The effects of the large population of yeasts on plant pathogens have not received much attention to date. However, S. This finding raises the possibility that other yeasts found within the cereal phyllosphere might also have biocontrol properties, a notion that warrants further research in this area.
Fungal communities separated according to host species in PCoA.
Winter and spring barley samples formed one cluster, albeit with a slight tendency towards clustering for the two barley types, which may arise from differences in sowing time and growth season in these crops. The relative abundance, but not occurrence, of many OTUs was significantly different between crop species.feileubinpueback.tk
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Microdochium nivale was almost exclusively found in spring barley in the investigated material. The absence of this fungus in winter barley could be a response to a warmer and drier growing season for this crop compared with the wetter and more humid conditions for spring barley during elongation and heading.
It should also be noted that R. However, a small number of species exhibited significantly different abundances across host species, which may be caused by subtle differences in nutrient availability or leaf surface topology of the hosts. We observed that fungal communities clustered according to cultivar, particularly in the fungicide nontreated plots, as fungicide treatment probably minimizes rather subtle cultivar effects by reducing the abundance of pathogens target organisms more than other species.
However, we did not observe a clear correlation between known disease resistances in individual cultivars and the fungal communities, although reads of individual pathogens, such as Z. This difference in community structure between the two treatments was also obvious in PCoA plots. Surprisingly, only a few OTUs responded significantly to fungicide treatment, and these did not include some of the organisms that are normally targeted in fungicide applications such as Z. The reason for this is unknown, but one possible explanation could be that treatments were performed at GS 37 and repeated at GS 55 for wheat , whereas samples were not taken before GS 73—75, possibly enabling fungal communities to partly recover from the fungicide treatment.
One possible explanation for the separation of communities in PCoA plots according to fungicide treatment observed in our study is that minor and statistically nonsignificant changes in individual OTUs may add together to reveal trends in the PCoA plots. Sporobolomyces roseus , S. Distance and differences in climate, including rainfall, soil type and crop rotations, are factors likely to influence the location differences observed. Deep amplicon sequencing is a powerful method for the analysis of microbial populations. Fortunately, we were able to compare visual symptoms of several diseases with the relative abundance of reads representing their causal agents, and we generally observed strong positive relationships.
In addition, retrieved sequences for B.
This was in accordance with visual assessments and with the fact that the other cultivars carry an mlo resistance gene. These positive correlations between visual disease severity and read quantity demonstrated the quantitative significance of the data for these pathogens. However, in our study, we did not retrieve Rhynchosporium spp.
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Furthermore, studies have shown that it is not possible to detect Puccinia sp. In conclusion, we have highlighted the effects of genotype, fungicide treatment and location on fungal communities in the cereal phyllosphere. We found that genotype was the most important factor in shaping the mycobiome. We believe that an understanding of this vast diversity of fungi will facilitate the development and adjustment of future strategies for crop protection.
The authors wish to thank Sidsel Kirkegaard and Helene Saltoft Kristjansen who collected leaf samples and performed disease assessments. Please note: Wiley Blackwell are not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing material should be directed to the New Phytologist Central Office.
S2 Bray—Curtis matrices visualized using principal coordinate analysis PCoA showing the distribution of samples according to cultivar in the three crops.
S3 Bray—Curtis matrices visualized using principal coordinate analysis PCoA showing the distribution of samples according to fungicide treatment in the three crops. S4 Bray—Curtis matrices visualized using principal coordinate analysis PCoA showing the distribution of samples according to location in the three crops.
Table S4 Comparison of the number of fungal operational taxonomic units OTUs detected in each crop in each location with and without fungicide treatment. Table S5 Pairwise comparison of Chao1 estimates of richness and observed richness in each crop according to treatment and location. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
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Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Summary The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health.
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Materials and Methods Study sites, treatments and plant material The study sites were located in Flakkebjerg, Zealand and Horsens, Jutland in Denmark Results Data characteristics Leaf samples from a total of plots were subjected to pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS1 region. Stephen L. Clement Sharron S. Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology v.
Kategoria Mycology, fungi (non-medical)
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