Manual Periodontal Review

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Experimental gingivitis in cigarette smokers: a clinical and microbiological study. Microbial comparison of smoker and non-smoker adult and early-onset periodontitis patients by polymerase chain reaction. Association between cigarette smoking, bacterial pathogens and periodontal status. Periodontal status in smokers and never-smokers: clinical findings and real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of putative periodontal pathogens.

Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis and fimA genotypes in smoker chronic periodontitis. Bergstrom J, Preber H. The influence of cigarette smoking on the development of experimental gingivitis. Influence of cigarette smoking on vascular reaction during experimental gingivitis.

Scand J Dent Res. Expression of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in gingival tissues of smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. J Oral Pathol Med. Effects of nicotine on periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro. Effect of nicotine-treated epithelial cells on the proliferation and collagen production of gingival fibroblasts.

Regulation of cytokine production in human gingival fibroblasts following treatment with nicotine and lipopolysaccharide. J Periodontol ;72 8 The influence of nicotine on the bone loss rate in ligature-induced periodontitis. A histometric study in rats. Histometric evaluation of the effect of nicotine administration on periodontal breakdown: an in vivo study. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 may be involved with increased bone loss associated with experimental periodontitis and smoking: a study in rats. Alteration of gene expression profiles of peripheral mononuclear blood cells by tobacco smoke: implications for periodontal diseases.

Oral Microbiol Immunol ;19 1 Effect of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid cytokine profile during experimental gingivitis. Alterations of gene expression in human neutrophils induced by smoking cessation. J Clin Periodontol ;31 12 Eur J Oral Sci Oct; 5 Magnusson I, Walker CB. Refractory periodontitis or recurrence of disease.

Johnson GK, Hill M. Cigarette smoking and the periodontal patient. J Periodontol ;75 2 The effect of smoking on periodontal treatment response: a review of clinical evidence. Loss of molars in periodontally treated patients: a retrospective analysis five years or more after active periodontal treatment.

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Adjunctive subantimicrobial dose doxycycline in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. Guided tissue regeneration in smokers: effect of aggressive anti-infective therapy in Class II furcation defects. Locally delivered doxycycline as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in the treatment of smokers: a clinical study.

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Locally delivered doxycycline as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in the treatment of smokers: a 2-year follow-up. Microbiological changes with the use of locally delivered doxycycline in the periodontal treatment of smokers. Smoking cessation may present a positive impact on mandibular bone quality and periodontitis-related bone loss: a study in rats. The influence of cigarette smoke inhalation and its cessation on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone: a histometric study in rats.

Domagala-Kulawik J. Effects of cigarette smoke on the lung and systemic immunity.

J Physiol Pharmacol. Mediators of Inflamm. Smoking cessation increases gingival blood flow and gingival crevicular fluid. Gingival bleeding on probing increases after quitting smoking. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization. The effect of quitting smoking on chronic periodontitis.

A prospective month study of the effect of smoking cessation on periodontal clinical parameters. Declaration of Interests: The authors certify that they have no commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the manuscript.

Periodontal Literature Review: |

All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Introduction It is estimated that tobacco use kills more than 5 million people per year. Smoking and periodontal tissues Epidemiological studies In the s and s several epidemiological studies established an association between smoking and destructive periodontal disease.

Biological effects and events Although the association between smoking and periodontal disease has been extensively demonstrated through epidemiological studies, the mechanisms by which smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of periodontitis have not yet been totally understood. Smoking cessation and periodontal tissues There is clinical and histological evidence demonstrating that the negative effect of smoking on periodontal tissues may be reverted after quitting smoking.

Conclusion In light of the existing evidence, it can be concluded that smoking is a strong risk factor for periodontal diseases. Journal of the New Zealand Society of Periodontology. Colonization relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacteroides forsythus in the infected root canals with chronic apical periodontitis.

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. Peptostreptococcus micros cell wall elicits a pro-inflammatory response in human macrophages. Journal of Endotoxin Research. Stimulation of Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm formation by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Oral Microbiology and Immunology. Effect of smoking on subgingival microflora of patients with periodontitis in Japan. BMC Oral Health. Cigarette smoking associated with advanced periodontal destruction in a Greek sample population of patients with periodontal disease. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology.

Socio-economic position, smoking, and plaque: a pathway to severe chronic periodontitis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Smoking and matrix metalloproteinases, neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase in chronic periodontitis.

Periodontal Literature Review:

Oral Diseases. Subgingival microbial profiles of smokers with periodontitis. Journal of Dental Research. Oral hygiene compliance and gingivitis expression in cigarette smokers. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. Cigarette smoking decreases tissue oxygen. Archives of Surgery. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor but not acetylcholinesterase plays an important role in nicotine-related periodontitis. Medical Hypotheses.

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  7. Diabetes and periodontal disease: a case-control study. Evidence that diabetes mellitus aggravates periodontal diseases and modifies the response to an oral pathogen in animal models.

    go to site Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry. Meng H. Association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. Periodontal disease as part of the insulin resistance syndrome in diabetic patients.