A continuous process was then developed in which the glass passed through the annealing stage before being cut into lengths, ground, and polished. A technique developed in Great Britain in the s, called the float-glass method , results in an important economy of space. The molten glass is conveyed onto a bath of a molten metal, such as tin. The high temperature of the molten metal smooths out any irregularities on the surface, making a flat, even sheet.
As the glass floats on top of the bath, the temperature of the molten metal is gradually reduced until the glass solidifies. Plate glass. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Tin, however, oxidises in a natural atmosphere to form tin dioxide SnO 2.
Known in the production process as dross, the tin dioxide adheres to the glass. To prevent oxidation, the tin bath is provided with a positive pressure protective atmosphere of nitrogen and hydrogen. The glass flows onto the tin surface forming a floating ribbon with perfectly smooth surfaces on both sides and of even thickness. The glass ribbon is pulled off the bath by rollers at a controlled speed.
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Variation in the flow speed and roller speed enables glass sheets of varying thickness to be formed. Top rollers positioned above the molten tin may be used to control both the thickness and the width of the glass ribbon. On exiting the "cold end" of the kiln, the glass is cut by machines. Today, float glass is the most widely used form of glass in consumer products.
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Due to both its high quality with no additional polishing required and its structural flexibility during production, it can easily be shaped and bent into a variety of forms while in a heated, syrupy state. This makes it ideal for a variety of applications such as. Most forms of specialized glass such as toughened glass , frosted glass , laminated safety glass and soundproof glass consist of standard float glass that has been further processed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 July Retrieved The company Corning is using the overflow downdraw technique , while Schott uses the float glass technique see Schott website.maisonducalvet.com/tiana-conocer-gente-soltera.php
Flat Glass Technology by Rune Persson - hwasitfarockbloc.gq
Heal, "Manufacture of window and plate glass," U. Halbert K. In the first section, the empirical findings from the U.
In the original study used four-digit SIC codes for the definition of the industry. The focus in this research is to find out the impacts of this definition on the depth of the analysis. The second, third and fourth sections redefine the performance parameter, technological discontinuity and dominant design concepts of the cyclical model of technology, respectively.
In the fifth section the flat glass industry is tested by means of a modified version of the cyclical model of technological change. For the test the U. Contrary to the original study of the cyclical model of technological change float glass emerged as the dominant design in both the plate glass industry and plate glass industry both in the United States and Europe. Finally there are critical comments on the entirely quantitative research method and the use of four digit SIC codes.
These misinterpretations of the industry are discussed at the beginning of the chapter. This chapter has four sections.
Table of Contents
First, the main findings of the research are summarized. The very broad definition of the industry with four-digit SIC very broadly seems to have two consequences: a the omission of two pertinent aspects from the flat glass industry, entirely separate subindustries and the international nature of the subindustries, and b the confusion of effectiveness and efficiency.
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Float glass was first effective in the plate glass industry requiring high quality expensive and thick flat glass. Not until float glass was thin and cheap enough it was capable of entering the sheet glass industry.
Flat Transparent Sheet Glass
In order to track these fundamental aspects three pertinent concepts, performance parameter, technological discontinuity and dominant design of the original model had to be redefined. Second, theoretical implications mainly discuss the challenges and the risks of entirely quantitative methods with very shallow data. Third, managerial implications deal the convergence of two industries. The dramatic change was hard to recognize since so many industry actors gave confusing signs.
The U. Fourth, further research suggests studies of the further elaborations of the cyclical model of technological change such as the organizational determinants of technological change typology as well as the complexities involved in the innovation and diffusion processes of simple nonassembled products. Publisher Springer International Publishing.