The New Press, Bauer, Joanne R. Forging environmentalism: justice, livelihood, and contested environments. ME Sharpe, Bryant, Bunyan, ed. Environmental justice: Issues, policies, and solutions. Island Press, Bullard, Robert D. Warren, and Glenn S. Johnson, eds. The quest for environmental justice: Human rights and the politics of pollution.
Counterpoint, Bullard, Robert. Boulder: Westview, Bullard, Robert Doyle, ed. Confronting environmental racism: Voices from the grassroots. Boston: South End Press, Camacho, David Enrique Cuesta, ed. Environmental injustices, political struggles: Race, class, and the environment. Duke University Press, Carmin, JoAnn, and Julian Agyeman, eds.
Environmental inequalities beyond borders: local perspectives on global injustices. Carruthers, David V. Environmental justice in Latin America: Problems, promise, and practice. From the ground up: Environmental racism and the rise of the environmental justice movement. NYU Press, Coward, Harold, ed.
SUNY Press, Dodds, Walter K. Humanity's footprint: momentum, impact, and our global environment.
global environmental justice
Columbia University Press, Glave, Dianne D. To love the wind and the rain: African Americans and environmental history. University of Pittsburgh Press, Gore, Al. An inconvenient truth: The planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Rodale, Gottlieb, Robert, and Anupama Joshi. Food justice. Greeley, Andrew M. The Catholic Imagination. Univ of California Press, Heise, Ursula K. Sense of place and sense of planet: The environmental imagination of the global. Oxford University Press, Gruenewald, David A. Smith, eds. Place-based education in the global age: Local diversity.
Routledge, Lerner, Steve, and Robert D.
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Diamond: A struggle for environmental justice in Louisiana's chemical corridor. Lerner, Steve. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States. Liu, Feng. Environmental justice analysis: Theories, methods, and practice. CRC Press, This approach is more likely to produce intergenerational distributive justice.
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Critiques of EJ frequently draw upon utilitarian principles e. Utilitarianism defines the most just policy as that which produces the greatest good for the greatest number. Be- cause it is focused on aggregate outcomes rather than individual or group outcomes, a just utilitarian policy could be inequitable. For instance, a leaked World Bank memo argued that a policy of export- ing pollution to Third World countries was economically beneficial and rational, because the cost of human health and environmental problems in the Third World was less than that in industrially developed countries Summers Utility-based calculations frequently rely on economic indica- tors to measure benefits, which are highly problematic.
For example, a researcher might compare the price different individuals are willing to pay for clean air. As one might expect, willingness to pay is linked to ability to pay; poor people are willing to pay less for the same goods even if they place equal value upon them.
Many utilitarians see capitalism as the most efficient means of producing utilitar- ian justice, but most radical scholars see capitalism and market-based remedies as a major source of injustice e.
Environmental justice scholars, activists, and policymakers have drawn from each sort of justice claim. The seventeen Principles of Environmental Justice, developed at the People of Color Envi- ronmental Leadership Summit in , encompass distributive and procedural justice along with entitlements and the precautionary principles.
The EJ Principles also highlight the right to self- determination—the right of people to shape their own destiny. Although self-determination has relevance to many groups, it has particular salience in the contexts of Native American struggles and 9. The Wingspread Consensus Statement on the Precautionary Principle was signed in by 32 activists, academics and doctors.
In these places, struggles over environment continue to center around expropriation, especially of land and other resources, and are intimately tied with identity and livelihood e. In trying to provide a relevant framework for international as well as US-based research and activism, Low and Gleeson define environmental justice as the social distribution of environmental well-being both within and among nations. Scholars of environmental justice have articulated several different conceptions of environmen- tal justice, but most draw from the Principles.
For example, Cutter writes that the principle of EJ guarantees 1 protection from environmental degradation, 2 prevention of adverse health impacts from deteriorating environmental conditions before the harm occurs not after, 3 mechanisms for assigning culpability and shifting the burden of proof of contamination to polluters not residents and 4 redressing the impacts with targeted remedial action and resources.
Over time, environmental justice activism has penetrated the state to varying degrees, and some forms of EJ have become institutionalized.
Executive Order mandated the incorpora- tion of EJ principles into federal agency activities. SB in California mandates that the Office of Planning and Research develop an environmental justice program for the state Pastor However, the prin- ciples articulated at the Summit have not been generally adopted; government agencies have emphasized some principles and omitted or revised others.
It speaks to the impartiality that should guide the application of laws More recently, the EPA provided this definition on its website: Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
Fair treatment means that no group of people, including a racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic group, should bear a dispro- portionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, munici- pal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies.
Environmental justice connects many struggles against racism. Yet, to some extent, it relies on environmental laws for legislative traction. Environmental laws provide certain openings—to rights —that have been largely cut out of civil rights e. Cole ; Cole and Foster At the same time, these laws are subject to change and interpretation, and so their promise too is unstable. Border crossings: Transnational movements for alternative development and radical democracy in the United States-Mexico border region. Geographers, colonialism, and development strategies: the case of Puerto Rico.
Urban Geography 17 5 Clarke, J.
Environmental Justice Institute
Environmental racism in the sunbelt? A cross-cultural analy- sis. Environmental Management 22 6 Cole, Luke. In Mutz, Kathryn M. Bryner and Douglas S.
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Washington, Covelo and London, Island Press. Cole, Luke W. Cutter, S. Race, class and environmental justice. Progress in Human Geography 19 1 Foster, Sheila. Environmental Justice in an Era of Devolved Collaboration. In Justice and Natural Resources, edited by K. Gedicks, Al. All Our Relations. Boston, South End Press. Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management.