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Current research foci include leadership, deviance, uncertainty reduction, extremism, and subgroup relations. Catherine E. Richard Y. Alian S. Scarcely anyone would quarrel with the assertion that humans are social animals or with the corollary assumption that, in order to understand people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, it is necessary to understand the role that groups play in human affairs. We all are members of large social categories based on such criteria as race, gender, ethnicity, and nationality, and most of us also belong to a range of groups and organizations e.

The groups that people belong to vary on several dimensions, including size, voluntariness of membership, composition the types of people who belong , structure e. Notwithstanding this diversity, groups matter, and matter a great deal, to their members. Before discussing the goals and organization of this encyclopedia, two definitional issues need to be considered. First, what do we mean by a group? As suggested above, groups can vary in many ways, and so providing a succinct definition is no easy task.

In fact, some observers have suggested, only partly in jest, that there are as many definitions of groups as there are researchers who study them. Rather than adding our imprimatur to one of these definitions, we will mention some of the major criteria that group researchers have emphasized in defining groups all of which are used, either explicitly or implicitly, by some authors in this encyclopedia. These criteria include the presence of particular structural features e. Which criterion, then, is the most important? As suggested by the eminent group theorist Joseph McGrath, this question assumes that the goal is to distinguish groups from all other social aggregates non-groups , which may be a futile exercise.

The second definitional issue is raised by the title of the encyclopedia. In general, the term group processes refers to what happens within groups, that is to how members of a group think, feel, and act toward others who belong to the same group. Topics that are typically subsumed under the heading of group processes include the impact of member diversity on team performance, the development and operation of group norms, the conditions under which numerical minorities can produce innovation, the characteristics of effective leaders, the factors that influence whether negotiators reach mutually acceptable agreements, the conditions under which team members fail to work hard on collective tasks, and the causes of poor decision making in groups that are under stress.

Defining intergroup relations is more complex.

In most cases, this term refers to what happens between groups, that is to how members of a group think, feel, and act toward others who belong to a different group. Topics that are typically subsumed under the heading of intergroup [Page xxxii] relations include the role of categorization in stereotyping and prejudice, the impact of social roles on gender stereotypes, the function that language serves in maintaining stereotypes, the conditions under which members of stigmatized groups engage in collective action against those who discriminate against them, the circumstances under which intergroup contact does and does not reduce prejudice, and the justifications that dominant groups use to rationalize discrimination against subordinate groups.

However, the term intergroup relations is not restricted solely to what happens between groups. It can also apply to what happens within groups i. An example is the black sheep effect, in which group members respond more negatively toward ingroup members who deviate from group norms and more positively toward ingroup members who conform to these norms when the ingroup feels threatened by an outgroup than when it does not.

Moreover, the term intergroup relations can also apply to some forms of self-directed thought, feeling, and action. An example is the phenomenon of stereotype threat, in which group members who are reminded that outgroups hold negative stereotypes of their ability in certain domains then perform poorly in these domains. Over the past 75 years, there has been a tremendous amount of theoretical and empirical work on group processes and intergroup relations by scholars from various disciplines.

Until recently, these two lines of work were quite distinct, and few efforts were made to bring them together in a single volume or, as in the present case, pair of volumes. This situation began to change in the s due in large part to the influence of the social identity approach to groups championed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner. A major indicator of and impetus for the integration of group processes and intergroup relations was the establishment of a journal by this name in , co-founded by Dominic Abrams and Michael Hogg.

In an important sense, then, this encyclopedia is a reflection of the growing though still far from complete integration of what were formerly two distinct perspectives on groups. When we John Levine and Michael Hogg were approached by Michael Carmichael of Sage with the idea of editing an Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations , we were initially reluctant to take on a task of this magnitude.

Nevertheless, a combination of M. Carmichael's persistence and charm and our propensity to overcommit ourselves eventually led to a round of handshakes and then a contract. We knew that the only way to make the venture a success was to convince other overcommitted colleagues to help. We had three criteria for choosing associate editors disciplinary background we wanted people from the three key disciplines of social psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior , substantial expertise and visibility in their respective fields, and excellent judgment. With their help and guidance, we developed a set of approximately topics for inclusion in the encyclopedia and then selected experts to write the relevant entries.

Almost all of these people accepted our invitations, and those who did produced excellent entries. Either we or one of the associate editors evaluated each entry and provided feedback to the author s. Many entries were revised to increase their accessibility to the general reader. The invitation and reviewing process was orchestrated by our superb managing editor, Danielle Dani Blaylock, who was a PhD student at Claremont Graduate University and is now a postdoctoral fellow at Queens University in Belfast, Ireland. In choosing topics for inclusion, selecting authors, and editing entries, we were mindful that the encyclopedia is not intended for professionals or experts with extensive knowledge of social psychology, sociology, or organizational behavior.

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The frustration-aggression hypothesis

Instead, it is intended for general readers who want state-of-the-art information about group processes and intergroup relations that is presented in a clear and accessible manner. Our instructions to authors were designed to achieve these goals. The entries are listed in alphabetical order, beginning with Action Research and ending with Xenophobia.

The lengths of the entries reflect our judgment regarding topic breadth and importance. The longest entries are approximately 4, words, and the shortest are about 1, words. Many of the shorter entries provide detailed discussions of topics that are only briefly covered in the longer entries. To help readers locate the topics in which they are most interested, we prepared a Reader's Guide see below that organizes the entries into 12 general categories.

Note that many entries appear in more than one category.


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  • Thucydides and Political Order: Concepts of Order and the History of the Peloponnesian War?
  • Daybook: The Journal of an Artist.
  • Encyclopedia of group processes and intergroup relations.
  • Depersonalization.

At the end of each entry, readers will find cross-references to other entries and a short list of Further Readings. We owe a great debt to the people at Sage who encouraged and assisted us at each stage of the project.

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For assistance with your order: Please email us at textsales sagepub. A unique resource This well-written and understandable overview of the group processes field should be in every library that supports the study of social psychology, sociology, or business.

Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations : John M. Levine :

Summing Up: Essential. This distinctive, well-researched, well-written, and understandable introduction to group theory is highly recommended for secondary, public, and academic libraries, particularly those supporting sociology and psychology programs. There are close to articles making up these two volumes exploring the individual elements of group processes and intergroup relations, as well as where they merge.

These articles cover broad categories ranging from theory and methodology to individual areas of interest The diversity of the individual article coverage is impressive. The entries are steeped in scholarship and written by experts in the fields of social psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior The authors are successful in writing in an accessible style easily grasped by undergraduates and informed lay readers Niedbala, E.

When I'm right you're wrong: Attitude correctness facilitates anger and approach motivation toward opposing individuals. Social Influence, 13, Taking one for the team: Physiological trajectories of painful intergroup retaliation. Retaliation against the outgroup: The role of self-uncertainty. Gambling and the reasoned action model: Predicting past behavior, intentions, and future behavior.

Journal of Gambling Studies, 34 , Hohman, Z. A biopsychological model of anti-drug PSA processing: Developing effective persuasive messages. Prevention Science, 18 , Who am I if I am not like my group? Self-uncertainty and feeling peripheral in a group. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 72 , Social identity complexity and entitativity: The relationship between group characteristics and personal characteristics on group identification.

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 , Fearing the uncertain: Self-uncertainty plays a role in mortality salience. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57 , Mortality salience, self-esteem, and defense of the group: Mediating role of ingroup identification.

Top Authors

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45 , De Dominicis, S. The role of vested interest in environmental risk communication: Improving willingness to cope with impending disasters. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44 , Attitudinal ambivalence and adolescent drug use: The persuasive effects of subjective ingroup norms on ambivalent attitudes toward drug use.

Prevention Science, 15 , Siegel, J.